Traceable Species


Tropical Reef Herbivore


Unicornfish are herbivores that live in tropical waters around coral reefs and are part of the surgeonfish family, Acanthuridae. Their name comes from the hornlike extension of the snout present in some species. They range from the Indian to Pacific Ocean. Two species are common in Hawai’i: the bluespine unicornfish or kala in Hawaiian (Naso unicornis) and sleek unicornfish or opelu kala in Hawaiian (Naso hexacanthus).

Kala is grey to bluish green. They are characterized by their long horn projecting from between the eyes extending out to the front of the mouth. Opelu kala is grey to greenish brown and does not have a horn. Like kala, they have two pairs of immovable bucklers on the caudal peduncle.


Kala travel in small schools and are seen in channels and seaward reefs with strong surges. They feed on coarse leafy brown algae. Opelu kala are often seen in large schools in open waters. They are opportunistic feeders feeding on red algae and zooplankton such as crab larvae and other small invertebrates.

Food Info Unicornfish


  • Color: clear, light pink flesh  
  • Texture: firm and moist flesh
  • Flavor: strong taste
  • Perfect serve: most commonly served raw, grilled, baked, or sauteed.


Species Range
Unicornfish range Source:
Tropical Reef Herbivore
These crabs mate at the time of maturity, which is approximately 3 years of age. Females are smaller than males; this is because the development of reproductive tissues required more energy for females, leaving less energy available for continued body growth. They grow through a process known as molting—regularly shedding their shell and growing a new, larger one. They continue to molt and grow after they have reached sexual maturity. During the breeding season, the crabs leave their borrows in a phenomenon characterized by mass mate-searching events. Once mating/fertilization has occurred, females spawns in the water. The larvae released during the rainy season develop in offshore waters and return to coastal waters five to eight weeks after larval release.
Mangrove crabs are important fishery resources in all Brazilian coast, mainly in the north and northeast where many fishermen depend upon their catch. In addition to its social and economic importance, the mangrove crab is a “keystone” species in ecosystem, they playing an important role in the processes of nutrient cycling and energy transfer.

Fishing Methods

{'fisheries': [<License: Hawaiian Reef Fish by Hook & Line>], 'gear': <Gear: Hook and Line Reef Fishing>}

Hook and Line Reef Fishing

This fishery uses a variety of artisanal methods to catch reef fish, including handlines, and pole and lines. Catch rates are low, usually only a few pounds per hour with little bycatch (discards). These small-scale fishing methods are similar to those traditionally used by native Hawaiians.


Featured Harvester Bernie Berry

Mangrove Crab Harvester

Canavieiras, Brazil

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