Traceable Species


Black - Humuhumu ʻeleʻele (Hawaiian), Pink-Tail - Humuhumu hiʻukole


Triggerfish include some 40 species of brightly coloured fish that inhibit tropical and subtropical oceans throughout the world. They get their name from their dorsal spines that are triggered into an erect position as projection against predators. Two species—the black triggerfish and pink-tailed triggerfish—are popular in Hawaii whose state fish is the wedge-tail triggerfish.

Triggerfish have an oval shaped, highly compressed body. The head is large, terminating in a small but strong-jawed mouth with teeth adapted for crushing shells. The eyes are small, set far back from the mouth, at the top of the head. The anterior dorsal fin has a set of three spines for defense. The anal and posterior dorsal fins are capable of undulating from side to side to provide slow speed movement. The sickle shaped tail is used only to escape predators. Triggerfish come in a wide variety of colours and patterns depending on the species.


Food Info Triggerfish


  • Colour: clear, light pink flesh  
  • Texture: firm and moist flesh
  • Flavor: mild tasting fish
  • Perfect serve: Serve grilled, baked, fried, raw or sauteed. 
Species Range
Black - Humuhumu ʻeleʻele (Hawaiian)
Pink-Tail - Humuhumu hiʻukole
These crabs mate at the time of maturity, which is approximately 3 years of age. Females are smaller than males; this is because the development of reproductive tissues required more energy for females, leaving less energy available for continued body growth. They grow through a process known as molting—regularly shedding their shell and growing a new, larger one. They continue to molt and grow after they have reached sexual maturity. During the breeding season, the crabs leave their borrows in a phenomenon characterized by mass mate-searching events. Once mating/fertilization has occurred, females spawns in the water. The larvae released during the rainy season develop in offshore waters and return to coastal waters five to eight weeks after larval release.
Mangrove crabs are important fishery resources in all Brazilian coast, mainly in the north and northeast where many fishermen depend upon their catch. In addition to its social and economic importance, the mangrove crab is a “keystone” species in ecosystem, they playing an important role in the processes of nutrient cycling and energy transfer.

Fishing Methods

{'fisheries': [<License: Hawaiian Reef Fish by Hook & Line>], 'gear': <Gear: Hook and Line Reef Fishing>}

Hook and Line Reef Fishing

This fishery uses a variety of artisanal methods to catch reef fish, including handlines, and pole and lines. Catch rates are low, usually only a few pounds per hour with little bycatch (discards). These small-scale fishing methods are similar to those traditionally used by native Hawaiians.


Featured Harvester Bernie Berry

Mangrove Crab Harvester

Canavieiras, Brazil

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