Traceable Species


Herbivore Reef Fish


Surgeonfish are herbivores that live in tropical waters around coral reefs. Their name is derived from the scalpel-like spines on their tails that are dangerously sharp. They range from the Indian to Pacific Ocean. Three species are common in Hawai’i: the convict surgeonfish or manini in Hawaiian (Acanthurus triostegus), the eyestripe surgeonfish or pualu in Hawaiian (Acanthurus dussumieri) and ringtail surgeonfish or palani in Hawaiian (Acanthurus blochii).

Convict surgeonfish (manini) is greyish yellow on the upper third of its body fading to white. Its name comes from the six vertical black stripes on its head and body.  Eyestripe surgeonfish (pualu) have a pale brown body with an orange band between the eyes. Ringtail surgeonfish (palani) is bluish grey in color with a yellow spot behind the eye and a white bar at the base of the caudal fin.


Manini travel in large schools and feed on filamentous algae. They can be seen grazing on algae covered rocks in the daytime and hiding in small caves at night. During spawning, eagle rays often eat their eggs that are broadcasted in the water column. Palani and pualu are also schooling species and can be found on deep coastal reef slopes and outer reef walls feeding on algae film covering sand.

Food Info Surgeonfish


  • Color: clear, light pink flesh  
  • Texture: firm and moist flesh
  • Flavor: strong taste
  • Perfect serve: most commonly served raw, grilled, baked, or sauteed. 
Species Range
Herbivore Reef Fish
These crabs mate at the time of maturity, which is approximately 3 years of age. Females are smaller than males; this is because the development of reproductive tissues required more energy for females, leaving less energy available for continued body growth. They grow through a process known as molting—regularly shedding their shell and growing a new, larger one. They continue to molt and grow after they have reached sexual maturity. During the breeding season, the crabs leave their borrows in a phenomenon characterized by mass mate-searching events. Once mating/fertilization has occurred, females spawns in the water. The larvae released during the rainy season develop in offshore waters and return to coastal waters five to eight weeks after larval release.
Mangrove crabs are important fishery resources in all Brazilian coast, mainly in the north and northeast where many fishermen depend upon their catch. In addition to its social and economic importance, the mangrove crab is a “keystone” species in ecosystem, they playing an important role in the processes of nutrient cycling and energy transfer.

Fishing Methods

{'fisheries': [<License: Hawaiian Reef Fish by Hook & Line>], 'gear': <Gear: Hook and Line Reef Fishing>}

Hook and Line Reef Fishing

This fishery uses a variety of artisanal methods to catch reef fish, including handlines, and pole and lines. Catch rates are low, usually only a few pounds per hour with little bycatch (discards). These small-scale fishing methods are similar to those traditionally used by native Hawaiians.


Featured Harvester Bernie Berry

Mangrove Crab Harvester

Canavieiras, Brazil

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